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Extraction, identification, and quantification of antioxidant phenolics from hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) shells
- Yuan, Bo, Lu, Mei, Eskridge, Kent M., Isom, Loren D., Hanna, Milford A.
- Food chemistry 2018 v.244 pp. 7-15
- Corylus avellana, acetone, antioxidants, byproducts, catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, hazelnuts, high performance liquid chromatography, industry, liquids, mass spectrometry, particle size, quercetin
- Hazelnut shells are the major byproduct of the hazelnut industry. The objectives of this study were to optimize the conditions for extracting phenolics and to identify and quantify the phenolics in hazelnut shells. Preliminary optimization showed that a high recovery of phenolics could be achieved with shell particle size less than 0.5mm when extracted with acetone at 50°C. Response surface experiments showed that a 10g/l liquid to solid ratio, 58% acetone, and 12h extraction time yielded the highest amount of phenolics. Twenty-seven phenolic compounds were identified in hazelnut shells by mass spectrometry. Coumaroylquinic acid, epicatechin gallate, quercetin, and six other phenolics were identified in hazelnut shells for the first time. The most abundant phenolics in hazelnut shells were catechin, epicatechin gallate, and gallic acid, as quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These results can be useful for the development of industrial extraction processes of natural antioxidants from hazelnut shells.