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Postprandial lipemic response to alpha-linolenic acid rich oil, butter, and olive oil

Svensson, Julia, Rosenquist, Anna, Adlercreutz, Patrick, Nilsson, Åke, Ohlsson, Lena
European journal of lipid science and technology 2010 v.112 no.9 pp. 961-969
alpha-linolenic acid, blood lipids, breakfast, butter, dietary fat, fatty acid composition, free fatty acids, hyperlipidemia, milk fat, olive oil, oxidation, rapeseed oil, risk, short chain fatty acids, transesterification
Postprandial lipemia varies with composition of dietary fat due to partitioning of fatty acids between β-oxidation, incorporation into TAG, and tissue lipids. Effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are poorly characterized. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification was used to produce a novel ALA-oil (35% ALA) from rapeseed and linseed oil. We hypothesized a lower postprandial lipemic response with ALA-oil than with olive oil and butter due to higher β-oxidation of ALA. A randomized crossover study with 26 healthy men compared the effects on plasma lipids 7 h after a breakfast containing 35 g ALA-rich oil, butter fat, or olive oil. The incremental area under curve for plasma TAG was lower with butter than with olive oil (34%, p<0.05) and ALA-oil (25%, ns). After ALA-oil percentage ALA increased, in TAG to a constant level of 7 mol% and in NEFA to 6% after 7 h. Since total NEFA increased with time the amount of exogenous ALA in NEFA also increased. Butter resulted in lower postprandial lipemia than the oils, the difference exceeding what is expected from the presence of short and medium chain fatty acids in butter. There was a considerable recirculation of ALA into the NEFA pool available for oxidation.Practical application: Enzymatic transesterification was used to produce a dietary oil rich in ALA. By randomizing the partitioning of ALA more evenly between the TAG molecules the risk of oxidation could be reduced. Analyses showed that the ALA-oil was stable during storage for at least 3 months. Enzymatic transesterification could be used as an advantageous method to design an ALA rich dietary oil with new properties regarding fatty acid composition, susceptibility to oxidation, and effects on blood lipids.