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Overview of technologies for improving energy efficiency from energy intensive industries derived from the Italian national experience in IPPC permit licensing

Mazziotti Gomez de Teran, C., Fiore, D., Favaroni, M., Fardelli, A.
Journal of cleaner production 2017 v.168 pp. 1547-1558
European Union, air, best available technology, carbon dioxide, cement, energy efficiency, environmental performance, greenhouse gas emissions, industry, iron, laws and regulations, monitoring, pollution control, process control, recycling, refining, soil, steel, wastes
One-third of global energy demand as well as CO2 emissions is accounted to industrial processes. In particular, over 30% of total industrial energy consumption is attributed to the iron and steel, cement and refining industry.The aim of the present paper is to review crosscutting technologies and measures adopted to improve energy efficiency in the main Italian industrial sectors regulated by the recent EU legislation on integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC-IED).In fact, 2010/75/EU Directive on industrial emissions, a general improvement on the entire environmental performance of the industrial installations is pursued by taking into account relevant environmental issues, such as emissions into water, air, soil as well as energy efficiency, waste production, recovering and recycling, restoration of the site upon definitive cessation of activities.Moreover, according to 2010/75/EU Directive, IPPC permits should be based on Best Available Techniques (BAT) aimed to reach an adequate level of environmental protection and should establish all the necessary measures including operating conditions, emission limit values for relevant polluting substances as well as monitoring requirements.Thus, in the present paper an assessment of Best Available Techniques (BAT) related to energy efficiency in the main Italian industrial installations is carried out on the base of the analysis on the IPPC permits released by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea, and made available on its web site.As a result a significant improvement in energy efficiency was assessed. In fact, many process units were upgraded, by major revamping or even by replacing the process completely with one showing better performances.Finally, since energy efficiency is at its best at the beginning of the life cycle of the plant, operators, whenever necessary, periodically monitor and measure the actual energy performance of their own installations for process control and maintenance purposes.