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An insight into the adsorption of diclofenac on different biochars: Mechanisms, surface chemistry, and thermodynamics

Lonappan, Linson, Rouissi, Tarek, Kaur Brar, Satinder, Verma, Mausam, Surampalli, Rao Y.
Bioresource technology 2018 v.249 pp. 386-394
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Pinus, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, adsorption, biochar, diclofenac, feedstocks, grinding, hydrophobicity, ions, microparticles, models, moieties, pH, particle size, pig manure, scanning electron microscopy, thermodynamics, wood, zeta potential
Biochars were prepared from feedstocks pinewood and pig manure. Biochar microparticles obtained through grinding were evaluated for the removal of emerging contaminant diclofenac (DCF) and the underlying mechanism were thoroughly studied. Characterization of biochar was carried out using particle size analyzer, SEM, BET, FT-IR, XRD, XPS and zeta potential instrument. Pig manure biochar (BC-PM) exhibited excellent removal efficiency (99.6%) over pine wood biochar (BC-PW) at 500 µg L⁻¹ of DCF (environmentally significant concentration). Intraparticle diffusion was found to be the major process facilitated the adsorption. BC-PW followed pseudo first-order kinetics whereas BC-PM followed pseudo second-order kinetics. Pine wood biochar was largely affected by pH variations whereas for pig manure biochar, pH effects were minimal owing to its surface functional groups and DCF hydrophobicity. Thermodynamics, presence of co-existing ions, initial adsorbate concentration and particles size played substantial role in adsorption. Various isotherms models were also studied and results are presented.