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Mycotoxins and beer. Impact of beer production process on mycotoxin contamination. A review

Pascari, Xenia, Ramos, Antonio J., Marín, Sonia, Sanchís, Vicente
Food research international 2018 v.103 pp. 121-129
barley, beers, brewing, decontamination, fermentation, food industry, hot water treatment, lactic acid bacteria, malting, mycotoxins, ozonation, public health, roasting, soaking, starter cultures
Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Its contamination with mycotoxins is of public health concern, especially for heavy drinkers. Beer production implies a variety of operations which might impact the initial level of mycotoxins in a positive or negative way. The complexity of these operations do not give to the brewer a complete control on chemical and biochemical reactions that take place in the batch, but the knowledge about mycotoxin properties can help in identifying the operations decreasing their level in foodstuffs and in the development of mitigation strategies. This review discusses available data about mycotoxin evolution during malting and brewing process. The operations that may lead to a decrease in mycotoxin load are found to be steeping, kilning, roasting, fermentation and stabilization operations applied over the process (e.g. clarification). Also, other general decontamination strategies usually employed in food industry, such as hot water treatment of barley, ozonation or even the use of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures during malting or fermentation are considered.