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Integrated physiological and proteomic analysis reveals underlying response and defense mechanisms of Brachypodium distachyon seedling leaves under osmotic stress, cadmium and their combined stresses
- Cheng, Zhi-Wei, Chen, Zi-Yan, Yan, Xing, Bian, Yan-Wei, Deng, Xiong, Yan, Yue-Ming
- Journal of proteomics 2017
- Brachypodium distachyon, amino acid metabolism, cadmium, carbon metabolism, defense mechanisms, drought, energy, gel electrophoresis, leaves, osmotic stress, phenotype, photosynthesis, polyethylene glycol, principal component analysis, protein folding, protein-protein interactions, proteins, proteome, proteomics, seedling growth, seedlings, ultrastructure, water stress
- Drought stress, a major abiotic stress, commonly occurs in metal-contaminated environments and affects crop growth and yield. In this study, we performed the first integrated phenotypic, physiological, and proteomic analysis of Brachypodium distachyon L. seedling leaves under polyethylene glycol (PEG) mock osmotic stress, cadmium (Cd2+), and their combined stresses. Combined osmotic and Cd2+ stress had more significant effects than each individual stress on seedling growth, and the physiological traits and ultrastructures of leaves. Totally 117 differentially accumulated protein (DAP) spots detected by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) were identified, and representing 89 unique proteins under individual and combined stresses. These DAPs were involved in photosynthesis/respiration (34%), energy and carbon metabolism (21%), stress/defense/detoxification (13%), protein folding and degradation (12%), and amino acid metabolism (7%). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that DAPs from the Cd2+ and combined stresses grouped much closer than those from osmotic stress, indicating Cd2+ and combined stresses resulted in more changes to the leaf proteome than osmotic stress alone. Protein-protein interaction analyses showed that a 14-3-3 centered sub-network could play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses. An overview pathway of proteome metabolic changes in Bd21 seedling leaves under combined stresses is proposed, representing a synergistic responsive network and underlying response and defense mechanisms.Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses, which commonly occurs in metal-contaminated environments, and affects crop growth and yield performance. We performed the first integrated phenotypic, physiological and proteomic analysis of Brachypodium distachyon L. seedling leaves under drought (PEG), cadmium (Cd2+) and their combined stresses.