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Gender proteomics II. Which proteins in sexual organs

Gianazza, Elisabetta, Miller, Ingrid, Guerrini, Uliano, Palazzolo, Luca, Parravicini, Chiara, Eberini, Ivano
Journal of proteomics 2017
amniotic fluid, assisted reproductive technologies, databases, females, health services, human reproduction, males, milk, placenta, pregnancy, proteins, proteome, proteomics, spermatozoa
In continuity with the review dealing with differences by gender in non-sexual organs [1], this review collects data on the proteomes of the sexual organs as involved in human reproduction, under both physiological and pathological conditions. It also collects data on the tissue structures and biological fluids typical of pregnancy, such as placenta and amniotic fluid, as well as what may be tested on preimplantation embryos during medically assisted reproduction. The review includes as well mention to all fluids and secretions connected with sex organs and/or reproduction, including sperm and milk, to exemplify two distinctive items in male and female physiology.The causes of infertility are only incompletely understood; the same holds for the causes, and even the early markers, of the most frequent complications of pregnancy. To these established medical challenges, present day practice adds new issues connected with medically assisted reproduction. Omics approaches, including proteomics, are building the database for basic knowledge to possibly translate into clinical testing and eventually into medical routine in this critical branch of health care.