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At-home and away-from-home dietary patterns and BMI z-scores in Brazilian adolescents

Cunha, Diana Barbosa, Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira, Pereira, Rosangela Alves, Sichieri, Rosely
Appetite 2018 v.120 pp. 374-380
adolescents, beans, body mass index, butter, children, cross-sectional studies, desserts, dietary surveys, eating out, factor analysis, food groups, food intake, food records, fried foods, overweight, pizza, regression analysis, rice, snacks, soft drinks, urban areas, Brazil
Away-from-home food intake has been associated with high rates of overweight among children and adolescents. However, there are no studies comparing at-home and away-from-home eating patterns among adolescents.The objective of this paper was to identify at-home and away-from-home dietary patterns among adolescents in Brazil, and to evaluate the relationship between these patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-scores.Data from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008–2009 were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Dietary intake was assessed by completion of written food records on two non-consecutive days.Five thousand two hundred sixty-six adolescents 10–19 years of age living in urban areas of Brazil were included in the analysis.Thirty-two food groups were examined by factor analysis, stratified by at-home and away-from-home eating. The associations between the food patterns and BMI z-scores were ascertained using linear regression analysis.In general, mean at-home food intake was greater than away-from-home food intake, but the ratio of away-from-home/at-home was greater than 30% for baked and deep-fried snacks, soft drinks, sandwiches, pizza, and desserts, and was lower than 10% for rice and beans. Three main similar dietary patterns were identified both at-home and away-from-home: the “Traditional pattern”, the “Bread and Butter pattern” and the “Western pattern”; however, away-from-home patterns encompassed more overall food items. Only the at-home “Western pattern” was positively associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.0006; p < 0.001).Our results indicate that unhealthy dietary pattern consumed at home is associated to BMI z-score, while away-from-home food consumption is not associated.