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Characterization of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs emitted from two woodchip boilers in Taiwan

Bai, Shih Ting, Chang, Shu Hao, Duh, Jing Min, Sung, Fu Hsiang, Su, Jhen Sheng, Chang, Moo Been
Chemosphere 2017 v.189 pp. 284-290
boilers, carbon, combustion, emissions factor, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, temperature, wood chips, Taiwan
This study investigates the formation and removal of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in two woodchips boilers during different operating periods. Results indicate that combustion condition affects PCDD/F and dl-PCB formation within the woodchip combustion process. PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations during the start-up period are much higher than those measured during normal operation and shut-down periods due to unstable combustion. PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations at APCDs inlet of Plant A are significantly higher than that of Plant B due to the lower combustion temperature (500–850 °C) compared with Plant B (850–925 °C). Major PCDD/F congeners at APCDs inlet of both plants during normal operation are O8CDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-H7CDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-H7CDF, while major dl-PCBs are TeCB-77, PeCB-118 and PeCB-126. The removal efficiencies of PCDD/F and PCBs achieved with the APCDs of Plant A are 95.6% and 88.6%, respectively, while those of Plant B are 99.3% and 94.9%. Possibly, the AC concentration of Plant A exceeds the optimal AC concentration and, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs might be formed because the AC injected can supply additional reaction area and carbon source. Also, this may be due to different operating temperatures of APCDs, which affects removal efficiency of PCDD/F and dl-PCB congeners. The emission factors (PCDD/Fs + dl-PCBs) of Plants A and B are calculated as 17.86 and 1.25 μg I-TEQ/ton, respectively. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the BF ash of Plants A and B during normal operation are measured as 98.57 and 38.06 ng I-TEQ/g, which are significantly higher than the standard limit (1.0 ng I-TEQ/g) promulgated by Taiwan EPA.