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The effect of silver or gallium doped titanium against the multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

Cochis, A., Azzimonti, B., Della Valle, C., De Giglio, E., Bloise, N., Visai, L., Cometa, S., Rimondini, L., Chiesa, R.
Biomaterials 2016 v.80 pp. 80-95
Acinetobacter baumannii, alkaline phosphatase, antibacterial properties, bacteria, bacterial adhesion, biocompatible materials, biofilm, electrochemistry, fracture fixation, gallium, multiple drug resistance, pathogens, porosity, scanning electron microscopy, silver, titanium, viability
Implant-related infection of biomaterials is one of the main causes of arthroplasty and osteosynthesis failure. Bacteria, such as the rapidly-emerging Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) pathogen Acinetobacter Baumannii, initiate the infection by adhering to biomaterials and forming a biofilm. Since the implant surface plays a crucial role in early bacterial adhesion phases, titanium was electrochemically modified by an Anodic Spark Deposition (ASD) treatment, developed previously and thought to provide osseo-integrative properties. In this study, the treatment was modified to insert gallium or silver onto the titanium surface, to provide antibacterial properties.The material was characterized morphologically, chemically, and mechanically; biological properties were investigated by direct cytocompatibility assay, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Immunofluorescent (IF) analysis; antibacterial activity was determined by counting Colony Forming Units, and viability assay.The various ASD-treated surfaces showed similar morphology, micrometric pore size, and uniform pore distribution. Of the treatments studied, gallium-doped specimens showed the best ALP synthesis and antibacterial properties.This study demonstrates the possibility of successfully doping the surface of titanium with gallium or silver, using the ASD technique; this approach can provide antibacterial properties and maintain high osseo-integrative potential.