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Accumulation, depuration dynamics and effects of dissolved hexavalent chromium in juvenile Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

Chen, Hongxing, Guo, Zhongbao, Zhou, Yu, Li, Dan, Mu, Lei, Klerks, Paul L., Luo, Yongju, Xie, Lingtian
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2017
Oryzias latipes, acclimation, adverse effects, animal growth, antioxidants, catalase, chromium, chronic exposure, fish, juveniles, lipid peroxidation, long term effects, superoxide dismutase, toxicity
We previously demonstrated that chronic exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) causes a variety of adverse effects in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The present study investigated the transition of acute to chronic effects by assessing the influences of Cr(VI) exposure concentration and exposure duration on Cr accumulation and their effects on fish growth and antioxidant physiology. Juvenile fish were exposed to 0.05, 0.5, 4 or 8mg/L Cr(VI) for 28 days. Endpoints were evaluated on days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. In addition, Cr depuration was examined for fish from two exposure groups (0.5 and 8mg/L). Chromium accumulation was rapid initially, then continued at a slower rate till the end of the exposure period without showing signs of reaching a steady state. Depuration patterns differed between the two exposure groups, but both reached 50% in 14 days). The rapid initial accumulation was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation and elevated activities of antioxidants (e.g., GST, SOD and CAT). Activities of these enzymes had mostly returned to baseline levels by day 7, but there was no evidence of further cellular damage from ROS. Effects on fish length and weight continued to be evident over the 28-day exposure period. Our study suggest that the initial effects of Cr(VI) exposure may not be a good predictor of more-chronic effects in fish as a consequence of an efficient acclimation response by the antioxidant system that limits ROS-mediated toxicity.