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Toxic effects of nanomaterial-adsorbed cadmium on Daphnia magna
- Gao, Minling, Zhang, Ze, Lv, Mengting, Song, Wenhua, Lv, Yuhua
- Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2017
- Daphnia magna, absorbents, acute toxicity, adsorption, aquatic organisms, cadmium, cadmium chloride, catalase, cell membranes, guidelines, malondialdehyde, nanomaterials, peroxidase, remediation, risk, soil, superoxide anion, superoxide dismutase
- Chemical immobilization technologies involving the use of chemical absorbents such as nanomaterials have been recommended for the remediation of Cd-contaminated water and soil. The impact of nanomaterials or nanomaterials coexisting with other contaminants on aquatic organisms has been reported, but information on the toxic effects of nanomaterial-adsorbed cadmium (Nano-Cd) on aquatic organisms is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of Nano-Cd on Daphnia magna by using a method developed based on the standard Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 202 guidelines. The toxicity of cadmium chloride (Cd2+), nano-manganese dioxide-cadmium (nMnO2-Cd), 20nm nano-hydroxyapatite-cadmium (nHAP20-Cd), and 40nm nano-hydroxyapatite-cadmium (nHAP40-Cd) to D. magna was in the following order: Cd2+> nMnO2-Cd > nHAP20-Cd > nHAP40-Cd. Further, nMnO2-Cd, nHAP20-Cd, and nHAP40-Cd showed acute toxicity to D. magna of level II grade according to the Commission of the European Communities and OECD standards. Exposure to low and medium, but not high, Nano-Cd concentrations increased the activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and anti-superoxide anion. Thus, Nano-Cd, particularly at high concentrations, could exert oxidative damage in D. magna. An increase in Cd2+ and Nano-Cd concentrations gradually increased the malondialdehyde content, indicating cell membrane damage caused by the production of excessive O2-. Thus, the use of nanomaterials after adsorption of Cd is associated with a potential risk to aquatic organisms.