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Health risk assessment of haloacetonitriles in drinking water based on internal dose
- Zhang, Ying, Han, Xuemei, Niu, Zhiguang
- Environmental pollution 2018 v.236 pp. 899-906
- absorbed dose, blood, health effects assessments, humans, ingestion, kidneys, liver, models, pharmacokinetics, probability distribution, risk, tap water, tissues
- To estimate the health risk of haloacetonitriles in different kinds of drinking water, the concentrations of haloacetonitriles in tap water, boiled water and direct drinking water were detected. The physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to calculate internal dose in the human body for haloacetonitriles through ingestion, and the probability distributions of the non-carcinogenic risk of haloacetonitriles for human via drinking water were assessed. This study found that the mean concentrations of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) in tap water, boiled water and direct drinking water were 0.955 μg/L, 0.207 μg/L and 0.127 μg/L, and those of dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) were 0.221 μg/L, 0.104 μg/L, 0.089 μg/L, respectively. In China, direct drinking water is used most frequently, so the concentrations of haloacetonitriles in direct drinking water were used to obtain data on the internal dose of haloacetonitriles. In addition, the simulation results for the PBPK model showed that the highest and lowest concentrations of DCAN occurred in the liver and venous blood, respectively. The peak concentrations of DBAN in each tissue were in the decreasing order liver > rapidly perfused tissue > kidney > slowly perfused tissues > fat > arterial blood (venous blood). In addition, the highest 95th percentile hazard quotients (HQ) value of haloacetonitriles via drinking water for humans was 8.89 × 10−3, much lower than 1. The 95th percentile hazard index (HI) was 0.046, which was also lower than 1, suggesting that there was no obvious non-carcinogenic risk.