U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

Jeffrey D. Boehm, M. Itria Ibba, Alecia M. Kiszonas, Deven R. See, Daniel Z. Skinner, Craig F. Morris
Journal of cereal science 2018 v.79 pp. 57-65
Triticum aestivum, additive effect, alleles, baking quality, chromosome mapping, genetic analysis, genotyping by sequencing, grain protein, hard red spring wheat, hardness, inbred lines, loci, microsatellite repeats, milling, mutation, parents, protein content, quantitative trait loci, seeds, texture
Kernel texture (grain hardness) is a key trait that influences the milling and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Herein, hard red spring wheat varieties Butte86 and ND2603, possessing the Pina-D1b and Pinb-D1b alleles, respectively, were used as parents in the development of 132 recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The RIL population and its parents were phenotyped for single kernel characterization system (SKCS) and NIR kernel texture, grain protein content, test weight, SKCS weight, and SKCS diameter, and genotyped using next-generation genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology, SSR markers and allele-specific sequence tagged site markers. Linkage maps for the entire RIL population and for two subsets of RILs, grouped on the basis of the Puroindoline-D1 alleles, were developed using a total of 695 markers. Multiple QTL mapping identified 10 QTLs for SKCS and NIR kernel texture with significant loci on 1AS, 1BS, 1BL, 5AL, 5BL, 6BL and 7BS. Of these, the 1BS QTL was associated with the Glu-B3 amplicon 691, and one of the 1BL QTL with Glu-B1. All QTL conferred an additive effect of ∼3–8 hardness units, a difference in kernel texture similar to or greater than the difference between the Pina-D1b and Pinb-D1b hardness mutations.