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Meligethes aeneus pollen-feeding suppresses, and oviposition induces, Brassica napus volatiles: beetle attraction/repellence to lilac aldehydes and veratrole
- Piesik, Dariusz, Delaney, Kevin J., Wenda-Piesik, Anna, Sendel, Sebastian, Tabaka, Piotr, Buszewski, Boguslaw
- Chemoecology 2013 v.23 no.4 pp. 241
- Brassica napus var. napus, Meligethes aeneus, aldehydes, beta-caryophyllene, buds, eggs, emissions, farnesene, herbivores, insect pests, insect pollination, linalool, oviposition, pollen, volatile organic compounds
- Insect pollination and pollen feeding can reduce plant volatile emissions and future insect floral attraction, with oviposition having different effects. Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is a pollen feeding pest beetle of oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae). We measured plant VOC emission over 72 h from two types of 24 h M. aeneus exposure to B. napus: pollen feeding vs. flower bud injury and oviposition. The most abundant constitutive volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lilac aldehydes A (LA A) & B (LA B) and veratrole (VER), had 30–40 % reductions from M. aeneus pollen-feeding exposure at 24 h and 50–90 % reductions by 72 h, with greater reductions after bud injury and oviposition. Linalool (LIN), a common herbivore induced plant volatile (HIPV), emission did not change at 24 h, but was induced six- to sevenfold 48 h after both exposure treatments. By 72 h, LIN had even greater (tenfold) induction after bud injury and oviposition, but no induction from pollen feeding. Three common HIPVs (β-caryophyllene, = βCAR (E)-β-farnesene = EβFAR, and (Z)-β-ocimene = ZβOCI) were progressively induced up to 2.5-fold 72 h after floral bud injury and oviposition. We assayed M. aeneus adult behavioral responses to LA A and B, and VER. Both M. aeneus sexes were attracted to higher concentrations than single plant constitutive emission for these VOCs, but avoided much higher doses. Progressive LA A and B, and VER, emission reductions might help plants (e.g., B. napus) to avoid future interactions with pollen-feeding pest herbivores (e.g., M. aeneus). After bud injury and oviposition, HIPV induction could help plants deter future oviposition and/or attract natural enemies to deposited eggs.