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Efficacy of phosphonate in controlling white powdery rot of fig caused by Phytophthora palmivora

Miyake, Noriyuki, Nagai, Hirofumi
Journal of general plant pathology 2017 v.83 no.6 pp. 390-397
Phytophthora palmivora, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, copper, copper hydroxide, copper sulfate, cyazofamid, disease control, enzyme inhibitors, figs, fungal diseases of plants, germination, leaves, median effective concentration, mycelium, phosphonates, plant rots, sporangia, sporulation, zoospores
Pre- and post-infection activities of phosphonate and fungicides (azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, cyazofamid, copper hydroxide, and copper sulfate) against white powdery rot on fig leaves caused by Phytophthora palmivora were determined. Phosphonate and fungicides were applied at 3, 7, or 14 days before inoculation and 16, 24, or 40 h after inoculation. Phosphonate and four fungicides (except for chlorothalonil) had protectant activity for up to 14 days before inoculation. Protectant activity between phosphonate and the four fungicides did not differ significantly. These fungicides did not have a curative activity, whereas only phosphonate had a curative activity when applied 16 h after inoculation. The pre-infection activity of phosphonate was determined in fig fields. Phosphonate provided excellent protectant activity, and its activity did not differ significantly from that of the copper fungicides. The activity of phosphonate in the life cycle of P. palmivora was compared with that of the five fungicides. Half-maximal effective concentration of the inhibition of mycelial growth was low for phosphonate, chlorothalonil, and the two copper fungicides. Mycelial growth was least affected by azoxystrobin and cyazofamid, but n-propyl gallate, an alternative oxidase inhibitor, in combination with these fungicides, significantly inhibited mycelial growth. Sporangium formation was sensitive to all compounds. Germination of encysted zoospores was sensitive to azoxystrobin, cyazofamid, and chlorothalonil and least sensitive to phosphonate and the two copper fungicides. The activity of phosphonate on mycelial growth and sporulation of P. palmivora suggests it has potential for controlling the disease.