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Genetic polymorphisms of HLA-DP and isolated anti-HBc are important subsets of occult hepatitis B infection in Indonesian blood donors: a case-control study
- Mardian, Yan, Yano, Yoshihiko, Wasityastuti, Widya, Ratnasari, Neneng, Liang, Yujiao, Putri, Wahyu Aristyaning, Triyono, Teguh, Hayashi, Yoshitake
- Virology journal 2017 v.14 no.1 pp. 201
- DNA, Hepatitis B virus, alleles, blood donors, blood serum, case-control studies, confidence interval, developing countries, gene expression, genetic variation, genotyping, haplotypes, hepatitis B, hepatitis B antigens, immune response, immunosuppression, liver, messenger RNA, odds ratio, open reading frames, patients, polymerase chain reaction, risk, seroprevalence, single nucleotide polymorphism, virus transmission
- BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the serum and/or liver in HBsAg-negative individuals. OBI is associated with the risk of viral transmission, especially in developing countries, and with progressive liver disease and reactivation in immunosuppressive patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of OBI to HLA-DP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encoding antigen-binding sites for the immune response to HBV infection. As HLA-DP variants affect the mRNA expression of HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 in the liver, we hypothesised that high levels of HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 expression favour OBI development. METHODS: The study enrolled 456 Indonesian healthy blood donors (HBsAg negative). OBI was defined as the presence of HBV-DNA in at least two of four open reading frames (ORFs) of the HBV genome detected by nested PCR. SNPs in HLA-DPA1 (rs3077) and HLA-DPB1 (rs3135021, rs9277535, and rs2281388) were genotyped using real-time Taqman® genotyping assays. RESULTS: Of 122 samples positive for anti-HBs and/or anti-HBc, 17 were determined as OBI. The minor allele in rs3077 was significantly correlated with OBI [odds ratio (OR) = 3.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.58–9.49, p = 0.0015]. The prevalence of the minor allele (T) was significantly higher in subjects with OBI than in those without (59% and 33%, respectively). The combination of haplotype markers (TGA for rs3077–rs3135021–rs9277535) was associated with increased risk of OBI (OR = 4.90, 95%CI = 1.12–21.52 p = 0.038). The prevalence of OBI was highest in the isolated anti-HBc group among the three seropositive categories: anti-HBs <500 mIU/ml, anti-HBs ≥500 mIU/ml, and isolated anti-HBc (29.41%, p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Genetic variants of HLA-DP and the presence of anti-HBc are important predictors of OBI in Indonesian blood donors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Ref: KE/FK/194/EC; registered 01 March 2013. Continuing approval Ref: KE/FK/536/EC; registered 12 May 2014.