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Utilization of chemically treated municipal solid waste (spent coffee bean powder) as reinforcement in cellulose matrix for packaging applications
- Thiagamani, Senthil Muthu Kumar, Nagarajan, Rajini, Jawaid, Mohammad, Anumakonda, Varadarajulu, Siengchin, Suchart
- Waste management 2017 v.69 pp. 445-454
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, aqueous solutions, biocomposites, cellulose, coagulants, coffee beans, color, ethanol, films (materials), flowers, light microscopy, municipal solid waste, packaging, renewable energy sources, sodium hydroxide, temperature, tensile strength, thermal stability, thermogravimetry, urea, vegetables, wastewater treatment
- As the annual production of the solid waste generable in the form of spent coffee bean powder (SCBP) is over 6 million tons, its utilization in the generation of green energy, waste water treatment and as a filler in biocomposites is desirable. The objective of this article is to analyze the possibilities to valorize coffee bean powder as a filler in cellulose matrix. Cellulose matrix was dissolved in the relatively safer aqueous solution mixture (8% LiOH and 15% Urea) precooled to −12.5°C. To the cellulose solution (SCBP) was added in 5–25wt% and the composite films were prepared by regeneration method using ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. Some SCBP was treated with aq. 5% NaOH and the composite films were also prepared using alkali treated SCBP as a filler. The films of composites were uniform with brown in color. The cellulose/SCBP films without and with alkali treated SCBP were characterized by FTIR, XRD, optical and polarized optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. The maximum tensile strength of the composite films with alkali treated SCBP varied between (106–149MPa) and increased with SCBP content when compared to the composites with untreated SCBP. The thermal stability of the composite was higher at elevated temperatures when alkali treated SCBP was used. Based on the improved tensile properties and photo resistivity, the cellulose/SCBP composite films with alkali treated SCBP may be considered for packaging and wrapping of flowers and vegetables.