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A harpin elicitor induces the expression of a coiled-coil nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene and others functioning during defense to parasitic nematodes

Aljaafri, Weasam A.R., McNeece, Brant T., Lawaju, Bisho R., Sharma, Keshav, Niruala, Prakash M., Pant, Shankar R., Long, David H., Lawrence, Kathy S., Lawrence, Gary W., Klink, Vincent P.
Plant physiology and biochemistry 2017 v.121 pp. 161-175
Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum, Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchulus reniformis, disease resistance, elicitors, genes, glycine hydroxymethyltransferase, heterologous gene expression, immunity, inositol 3-alpha-galactosyltransferase, leucine, parasitism, transcription (genetics), xyloglucan:xyloglucosyl transferase
The bacterial effector harpin induces the transcription of the Arabidopsis thaliana NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1/HARPIN INDUCED1 (NDR1/HIN1) coiled-coil nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene. In Glycine max, Gm-NDR1-1 transcripts have been detected within root cells undergoing a natural resistant reaction to parasitism by the syncytium-forming nematode Heterodera glycines, functioning in the defense response. Expressing Gm-NDR1-1 in Gossypium hirsutum leads to resistance to Meloidogyne incognita parasitism. In experiments presented here, the heterologous expression of Gm-NDR1-1 in G. hirsutum impairs Rotylenchulus reniformis parasitism. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Gm-NDR1-1 expression functions broadly in generating a defense response. To examine a possible relationship with harpin, G. max plants topically treated with harpin result in induction of the transcription of Gm-NDR1-1. The result indicates the topical treatment of plants with harpin, itself, may lead to impaired nematode parasitism. Topical harpin treatments are shown to impair G. max parasitism by H. glycines, M. incognita and R. reniformis and G. hirsutum parasitism by M. incognita and R. reniformis. How harpin could function in defense has been examined in experiments showing it also induces transcription of G. max homologs of the proven defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1), TGA2, galactinol synthase, reticuline oxidase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase, alpha soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (α-SNAP) and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT). In contrast, other defense genes are not directly transcriptionally activated by harpin. The results indicate harpin induces pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) defense processes in the root, activating defense to parasitic nematodes.