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Genotoxic potential of diesel exhaust particles from the combustion of first- and second-generation biodiesel fuels—the FuelHealth project

Kowalska, Magdalena, Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta, Brzoska, Kamil, Wojewodzka, Maria, Meczynska-Wielgosz, Sylwia, Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna, Mruk, Remigiusz, Øvrevik, Johan, Kruszewski, Marcin, Lankoff, Anna
Environmental science and pollution research international 2017 v.24 no.31 pp. 24223-24234
DNA damage, biodiesel, combustion, diesel fuel, emissions, fatty acid methyl esters, feedstocks, fossil fuels, gene expression, genotoxicity, human health, lung neoplasms, morbidity, mortality, mutagenicity, mutagens, risk, signal transduction, traffic, vegetable oil
Epidemiological data indicate that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from traffic emissions is associated with higher risk of morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, accelerated progression of atherosclerotic plaques, and possible lung cancer. While the impact of DEPs from combustion of fossil diesel fuel on human health has been extensively studied, current knowledge of DEPs from combustion of biofuels provides limited and inconsistent information about its mutagenicity and genotoxicity, as well as possible adverse health risks. The objective of the present work was to compare the genotoxicity of DEPs from combustion of two first-generation fuels, 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (B7) and 20% FAME (B20), and a second-generation 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (SHB: synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel) fuel. Our results revealed that particulate engine emissions from each type of biodiesel fuel induced genotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as the increased levels of single-strand breaks, the increased frequencies of micronuclei, or the deregulated expression of genes involved in DNA damage signaling pathways. We also found that none of the tested DEPs showed the induction of oxidative DNA damage and the gamma-H2AX-detectable double-strand breaks. The most pronounced differences concerning the tested particles were observed for the induction of single-strand breaks, with the greatest genotoxicity being associated with the B7-derived DEPs. The differences in other effects between DEPs from the different biodiesel blend percentage and biodiesel feedstock were also observed, but the magnitude of these variations was limited.