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Effects of waterlogging and cadmium on ecophysiological responses and metal bio-accumulation in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon)

Tan, Shuduan, Dong, Fangxu, Yang, Yuting, Zeng, Qingru, Chen, Bin, Jiang, Lihong
Environmental earth sciences 2017 v.76 no.20 pp. 719
Cynodon dactylon, bioaccumulation, biomass, cadmium, chlorophyll, developmental stages, ecophysiology, flooded conditions, hyperaccumulators, leaves, phytoremediation, root growth, submergence, toxicity, uptake mechanisms, zinc
Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) can endure long-term and deep submergence stress and cadmium toxicity, respectively. But we do not know whether they can endure cadmium plus waterlogging and what are the differences of ecophysiological responses and metal bio-accumulation of Bermuda grass subjected to normal condition, waterlogging, cadmium or cadmium-and-waterlogging treatments, respectively. Here, the four treatments on Bermuda grass are performed with four replications. Our objective is to determine the ecophysiological responses and endurance abilities, cadmium and zinc bio-concentration and translocation, and the metal uptake mechanisms of Bermuda grass subjected to the four treatments. Our results demonstrated different treatments showed different ecophysiological responses in Bermuda grass. The shoot weights of cadmium treatment were significantly lower than those of the other treatments when the values determined after treated 25 d. Cadmium had a certain promotion effect on the root growth at the early growth stage. SPAD values indicate the relative amounts of chlorophyll present in plant leaves. SPAD value of 35 d was higher than 25 d of cadmium treatment, indicating cadmium had negative effects on chlorophyll contents in the early stage, but the negative effects might be ameliorated as plants adapted to cadmium stress. Waterlogging induced the biomass decrease and accelerated cadmium translocation. The plant leaves had the highest cadmium contents exposed to cadmium-and-waterlogging treatment, while the root showed the highest cadmium contents suffered only cadmium stress. The bio-concentration factor of cadmium-and-waterlogging treatment was less than that of cadmium treatment, but the translocation factor of cadmium-and-waterlogging treatment was much greater than that of cadmium treatment, which indicated phytostabilization was the main phytoremediation process subjected to only cadmium stress, while phytoextraction was the main process when exposed to cadmium-and-waterlogging treatment. Bermuda grass was a cadmium hyperaccumulator and had strong adaptability to waterlogging, cadmium toxicity or both.