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Dietary pesticide chlorpyrifos-methyl affects arachidonic acid metabolism including phospholipid remodeling in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
- Sanden, M., Olsvik, P.A., Søfteland, L., Rasinger, J.D., Rosenlund, G., Garlito, B., Ibáñez, M., Berntssen, M.H.G.
- Aquaculture 2018 v.484 pp. 1-12
- Salmo salar, aquaculture feeds, arachidonic acid, bile, biotransformation, chlorpyrifos-methyl, cholinesterase, diet, dietary exposure, dose response, enzyme activity, fish, hematocrit, ingredients, lipid metabolism, liver, metabolites, palmitic acid, phospholipids, spleen
- The pesticide chlorpyrifos-methyl (CLP-m) has been identified in plant ingredients intended for aquaculture feed production. To investigate systemic effects of CLP-m with emphasis on lipid metabolism, post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed in duplicate (n=2) either diets with no CLP-m (Control) or CLP-m at different concentrations (0.1, 1.0 or 8.0mgkg−1) for a total of 67days (Low, Medium, High). Fish in all groups almost doubled their weight during the feeding trial from 262±26g (mean±SD) to 465±64g (overall mean), with no significant effects on any growth parameters. There was a significant dose-dependent inhibition of plasma cholinesterase activity (BuChE) after 67days. The CLP-m biotransformation metabolite, TCP was detected in liver and bile, with low levels of the parent compound in the organs. Spleen somatic index decreased significantly with increasing dietary CLP-m intake. Hematocrit (%) decreased linearly with increasing dietary exposure to CLP-m after 30days of exposure, but this decrease was less at 67days of exposure. A significantly reduced content of arachidonic acid (ARA 20:4n−6), accompanied by a significantly increased content of the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (PA 16:0), was observed in liver phospholipids (PLs) with increasing dietary content of CLP-m. Major effects were seen on the PL classes in liver which showed a significantly decreased absolute content, possibly indicating inhibition of PL remodeling pathways or other membrane perturbation effects from CLP-m exposure. In conclusion, this study shows that the pesticide CLP-m is a relatively potent toxicant in Atlantic salmon, especially affecting liver PLs and ARA metabolism.