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Associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with residential characteristics, lifestyles, and dietary habits among young children in Shanghai, China
- Liao, Chenxi, Liu, Wei, Zhang, Jialing, Shi, Wenming, Wang, Xueying, Cai, Jiao, Zou, Zhijun, Lu, Rongchun, Sun, Chanjuan, Wang, Heng, Huang, Chen, Zhao, Zhuohui
- The Science of the total environment 2018 v.616-617 pp. 1288-1297
- adverse effects, air cleaners, children, dusting, eating habits, furniture, high performance liquid chromatography, ionization, isotopes, lifestyle, mass spectrometry, metabolites, phthalates, plastics, questionnaires, regression analysis, soft drinks, toys, urine, China
- Exposure to household phthalates has been reported to have adverse effects on children's health. In this paper, we used phthalate metabolites in the first morning urine as indicators of household phthalate exposures and examined their associations with residential characteristics, lifestyles and dietary habits among young children. During 2013–2014, we collected morning urines from children aged 5–10years in Shanghai, China and obtained the related information about analyzed factors in this study by questionnaires. Urinary phthalate metabolites were analyzed by isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-heated electrospray ionization source (HESI) coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. ANOVA, the Mann-Whitney or Kruskai-Wallis rank tests, and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to examine the target associations. Ten metabolites of seven phthalates in 434 urine samples were analyzed. The detection rates of eight metabolites (MiBP, MnBP, MEHP, MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEP, and MMP) were >90%, except for MBzP (51.2%), and MCHP with <10.0% of detection rate was not included in analyses. By multivariate linear regression analyses, factors significantly associated with higher concentrations of metabolites included non-usage household air cleaners (MEP and MEHP), changing the child's pillowcase less than one time a week (DEHP metabolites), dusting furniture in the child's bedroom less than three times a week (MMP and MnBP), using more plastic toys (DEHP metabolites and MEP), often having soft drinks (DEHP metabolites) and candies (MiBP). Our results indicated that phthalate exposures were common among Shanghai children and residential characteristics had less significant associations with urinary phthalate metabolites compared with lifestyles and dietary habits. Using less plastic toys, having less candies and soft drinks, using household air cleaner, as well as frequently changing the child's pillowcase and dusting furniture in the child's bedroom could reduce phthalate exposures among children.