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Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) in surface and ground waters and their application as indication of wastewater contamination
- Yang, Yuan-Yuan, Zhao, Jian-Liang, Liu, You-Sheng, Liu, Wang-Rong, Zhang, Qian-Qian, Yao, Li, Hu, Li-Xin, Zhang, Jin-Na, Jiang, Yu-Xia, Ying, Guang-Guo
- The Science of the total environment 2018 v.616-617 pp. 816-823
- acesulfame potassium, anthropogenic activities, aquatic environment, drugs, groundwater, hydrophilicity, municipal wastewater, personal care products, rivers, sucralose, surface water, surveys, water pollution, watersheds, China
- We systematically investigated the occurrence and distribution of 93 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and 5 artificial sweeteners (ASs) in surface water and groundwater of Dongjiang River basin in south China. In surface water, 52 compounds were detected with median concentrations ranging from 0.06ng/L to 504ng/L, while in groundwater, 33 compounds were detected with concentrations up to 4580ng/L for acesulfame. PPCPs and ASs were widely detected in the surface water and groundwater samples, which indicated contamination by domestic wastewater in the surface water and groundwater of Dongjiang River basin. Temporal and spatial variations of the detected chemicals were observed in surface water. Acesulfame, sucralose and cyclamate can be used as wastewater indicators to imply contamination in groundwater caused by domestic wastewater due to their hydrophilicity, anthropogenic sources and ubiquity in groundwater. Moreover, the detection of the readily degradable ASs, cyclamate, was a strong indication of untreated wastewater in groundwater. Sucralose was found to be a suitable wastewater indicator to reflect domestic wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater qualitatively and quantitatively, and it can be used to evaluate wastewater burden in surface water and groundwater of Dongjiang River basin. The wastewater burden data from this survey implied serious contamination in surface water and groundwater by domestic wastewater at Shima River, a tributary of the Dongjiang River. The findings from this study suggest that the selected labile and conservative chemicals can be used as indication of wastewater contamination for aquatic environments qualitatively and quantitatively.