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Chemical characterization and breadmaking potential of spelt versus wheat flour

Frakolaki, Georgia, Giannou, Virginia, Topakas, Evangelos, Tzia, Constantina
Journal of cereal science 2018 v.79 pp. 50-56
Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta, baked goods, breadmaking, color, dough, electrophoresis, gliadin, gluten, glutenins, hardness, nutritive value, protein content, rheological properties, rheology, starch, water activity, wheat, wheat flour
Spelt flour has become increasingly popular due to its superior nutritional properties. Aim of this work was to conduct a comparative evaluation of the chemical composition of wheat and spelt flour, their dough rheology and breadmaking properties. Flours’ comparison included the determination of their moisture, ash, protein, gluten, gliadin, glutenin, starch and total carbohydrates content. Their rheological properties were also analyzed through farinograph and extensiograph. The protein fractions of the two flours were evaluated by electrophoresis. Finally, each flour was separately used for breadmaking and the characteristics of the resulting bakery products (specific volume, dough swelling, crust and crumb color, hardness and water activity), were evaluated. Although spelt flour has higher protein content, it contains less gluten, while wheat flour provides a stronger and more elastic dough with superior breadmaking properties. Bread from spelt flour exhibits lower specific volume, darker crumb and crust color and increased crust and crumb hardness.