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Dough and bread made from high- and low-protein flours by vacuum mixing: Part 2. Yeast activity, dough proofing and bread quality

Gao, Jing, Tay, Shia Lyn, Koh, Audrey Hui Si, Zhou, Weibiao
Journal of cereal science 2017 v.77 pp. 275-283
breadmaking quality, breads, carbon dioxide, dough, dough development, fermentation, flour, gas production (biological), headspace analysis, mass transfer, mixing, porosity, texture, yeasts
The combined effects of reduced mixer headspace pressure and mixing duration on the yeast activity, proofing and quality of dough and bread made from both high-protein flour (HPF) and low-protein flour (LPF) were addressed in this study. Rheofermentometer analysis showed that a reduction in mixer headspace pressure up to 0.08 MPa did not affect the overall gassing power of yeast in either of the two dough matrices. An increase in mixing duration sped up the mass transfer rate of CO2 at the initial stage of fermentation, leading to a faster expansion of dough volume at the beginning. Moreover, an increase in mixing time promoted dough development and gas inclusion, which resulted in a increased volume of dough and bread, as well as a softer texture of both baked bread and steamed bread. In general, reduced headspace pressure produced baked bread of smaller volume, denser structure and harder texture. On the other hand, vacuum mixing produced steamed bread with softer texture without significantly changing the bread’s volume and porosity.