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Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats

Hejazy, Marzie, Koohi, Mohammad Kazem
Biological trace element research 2017 v.180 no.2 pp. 265-274
alanine transaminase, albumins, analysis of variance, aspartate transaminase, biomarkers, blood coagulation, blood serum, body weight, bones, cadmium, cadmium chloride, cholesterol, dose response, drinking water, drugs, foods, free fatty acids, hematocrit, immunity, kidneys, laboratory animals, liver, low density lipoprotein, lungs, males, oral administration, oral exposure, poisoning, pollutants, protective effect, protein content, rats, t-test, toxicity, triacylglycerols, zinc, zinc oxide
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn²⁺ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl₂) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl₂ (2–5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The haematocrit (HCT) significantly increased and blood coagulation time significantly reduced in the nano-zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P < 0.05). It seems that in the oral administration of nano-zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.