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The gene-diet associations in postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed dyslipidemia

Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna, Kaczmarek, E., Mosor, M., Przysławski, J., Nowak, J.
The journal of nutrition, health & aging 2017 v.21 no.9 pp. 1031-1037
adrenergic receptors, alleles, eating habits, energy, etiology, food intake, food records, genetic factors, genotype, hyperlipidemia, lipid composition, low density lipoprotein, nutrients, nutrition-genotype interaction, nutritional status, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, polymerase chain reaction, polyunsaturated fatty acids, postmenopause, restriction fragment length polymorphism, risk, women
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor - PPAR gamma-2 (Pro12Ala, C1431T) and beta 3-adrenergic receptor - ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) and dietary habits in a group of postmenopausal women who were not under hypolipidemic treatment. DESIGN: Genetic, nutritional and anthropometric parameters were measured in 213 dyslipidemic (LDL ≥115 mg/dL) and 58 normolipidemic (LDL<115) postmenopausal women. The PCR-RFLP method were used to determine the distributions of selected alleles and genotype frequencies. Dietary intake of basic components and fatty acids was obtained from a 7-day weighed food record and the bio-impedance method was used to determine nutritional status. RESULTS: Nearly 79% of analyzed women were in the firsttime-diagnosed dyslipidemic state. The dyslipidemic subjects were characterized with higher intake of energy, fat, and saturated fatty acids (SFA). The analysis of the same polymorphisms showed association at the P value <0.05 with nutrients (fat, SFA, and polyunsaturated fatty acid - PUFA and saccharose) and elevated LDL level. Higher PUFA intake in a group of women with the protective Ala12/X polymorphism did not increase the risk of dyslipidemia even though they were characterized by visceral distribution of fat. The Arg64/X polymorphism and higher intake of energy, fat, and arachidic acid intake (C20:0) were associated with dyslipidemic state. CONCLUSION: Both nutritional and genetic factors are related to lipid profile. The identification of gene-diet associations is likely to provide useful information about the etiology of postmenopausal dyslipidemia and help in effective treatment.