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Aluminum Induces Distinct Changes in the Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in the Roots of Two Wheat Genotypes with Different Aluminum Resistance

Sun, Chengliang, Liu, Lijuan, Zhou, Weiwei, Lu, Lingli, Jin, Chongwei, Lin, Xianyong
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.43 pp. 9419-9427
NAD(P)H oxidase (H2O2-forming), NADP (coenzyme), Triticum aestivum, acid soils, aluminum, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, crop yield, crops, genotype, glutathione, lipid peroxidation, metabolism, nitric oxide, nitrogen, oxygen, peroxidase, phytotoxicity, reactive nitrogen species, root growth, roots, wheat
Aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils is a primary factor limiting plant growth and crop yield worldwide. Considerable genotypic variation in resistance to Al toxicity has been observed in many crop species. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Al phytotoxicity is a complex phenomenon involving multiple physiological mechanisms which are yet to be fully characterized. To elucidate the physiological and molecular basis of Al toxicity in wheat, we performed a detailed analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) under Al stress in one Al-tolerant (Jian-864) and one Al-sensitive (Yang-5) genotype. We found Al induced a significant reduction in root growth with the magnitude of reduction always being greater in Yang-5 than in Jian-864. These reductions were accompanied by significant differences in changes in antioxidant enzymes and the nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in these two genotypes. In the Al-sensitive genotype Yang-5, Al induced a significant increase in ROS, NO, peroxynitrite (ONOO–) and activities of NADPH oxidase, peroxidase, and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). A concomitant reduction in glutathione and increase in S-nitrosoglutathione contents was also observed in Yang-5. In contrast, the Al-tolerant genotype Jian-864 showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS and RNS accumulation, which was likely achieved through the adjustment of its antioxidant defense system to maintain redox state of the cell. These results indicate that Al stress affected redox state and NO metabolism and caused nitro-oxidative stress in wheat. Our findings suggest that these molecules could be useful parameters for evaluating physiological conditions in wheat and other crop species under adverse conditions.