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Identification of Collagen-Derived Hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Containing Cyclic Dipeptides with High Oral Bioavailability: Efficient Formation of Cyclo(X-Hyp) from X-Hyp-Gly-Type Tripeptides by Heating

Taga, Yuki, Kusubata, Masashi, Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko, Hattori, Shunji
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.43 pp. 9514-9521
antidepressants, antioxidants, bioavailability, blood, collagen, dipeptides, foods, ginger, heat, heat treatment, hydrolysates, hydroxyproline, mice, oral administration, pH, proteinases, tripeptides
Cyclic dipeptides (2,5-diketopiperazines) are present in a variety of foods and are reported to demonstrate antioxidant, antidepressant, and other beneficial effects. We recently developed a novel collagen hydrolysate characterized by a high content of X-hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly-type tripeptides using ginger protease. In the present study, we found that, through heating, X-Hyp-Gly can be easily converted into Hyp-containing cyclic dipeptides. After heating for 3 h at 85 °C and pH 4.8, Ala-Hyp-Gly was almost completely cyclized to cyclo(Ala-Hyp), in contrast to a slight cyclization of Ala-Hyp. The contents of cyclo(Ala-Hyp) and cyclo(Leu-Hyp) reached 0.5–1% (w/w) each in the ginger-degraded collagen hydrolysate under the heating conditions. Oral administration experiments using mice revealed that cyclo(Ala-Hyp) and cyclo(Leu-Hyp) were absorbed into the blood at markedly higher efficiencies compared to collagenous oligopeptides, including Pro-Hyp. The high productivity and oral bioavailability of the collagen-specific cyclic dipeptides suggest significant health benefits of the heat-treated ginger-degraded collagen hydrolysate.