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Phosphate-induced differences in stabilization efficiency for soils contaminated with lead, zinc, and cadmium

Ren, Jie, Zhang, Zhuo, Wang, Mei, Guo, Guanlin, Du, Ping, Li, Fasheng
Frontiers of environmental science & engineering 2018 v.12 no.2 pp. 10
cadmium, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, engineering, hydroxides, lead, pH, phosphorus, polluted soils, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, zinc
Phosphates can cost-effectively decrease the mobility of Pb in contaminated soils. However, Pb always coexists with other metals in soil, their competitive reactions with phosphates have not been tested. In this study, the abilities of KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, and K₃PO₄ to stabilize Pb, Zn, and Cd in soils contaminated with a single metal or a ternary metal for different phosphorus/metal molar ratios were investigated. Results indicated that the stabilization efficiency of KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, and K₃PO₄ for Pb, Zn, and Cd in single metal contaminated soil (P/M ratio 0.6) was 96.00%–98.74%, 33.76%–47.81%, and 9.50%–55.79%, respectively. Competitive stabilization occurred in the ternary system, Pb exhibited a strong competition, the stabilization efficiency of Zn and Cd reduced by 23.50%–31.64%, and 7.10%–39.26%, respectively. Pyromorphite and amorphous lead phosphate formed with excess KH₂PO₄ or K₂HPO₄ addition, while K₃PO₄ resulted in the formation of a hydroxypyromorphite precipitate. Amorphous Zn and Cd phosphates and hydroxides were the primary products. The immobilization rate of Zn and Cd depends on pH, and increased significantly in response to the excess phosphate application. This approach provides insight into phosphate-induced differences in stabilization efficiency in soils contaminated with multiple metals, which is of theoretical and engineering significance.