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Validation and use of in vivo solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) for the detection of emerging contaminants in fish
- Wang, Shuang, Oakes, Ken D., Bragg, Leslie M., Pawliszyn, Janusz, Dixon, George, Servos, Mark R.
- Chemosphere 2011 v.85 no.9 pp. 1472-1480
- atrazine, bioaccumulation, bisphenol A, effluents, environmental monitoring, fish, ibuprofen, public water supply, quantitative analysis, risk assessment, surface water
- A variety of emerging chemicals of concern are released continuously to surface water through the municipal wastewater effluent discharges. The ability to rapidly determine bioaccumulation of these contaminants in exposed fish without sacrificing the animal (i.e. in vivo) would be of significant advantage to facilitate research, assessment and monitoring of their risk to the environment. In this study, an in vivo solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) approach was developed and applied to the measurement of a variety of emerging contaminants (carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, bisphenol A, fluoxetine, ibuprofen and atrazine) in fish. Our results indicated in vivo SPME was a potential alternative extraction technique for quantitative determination of contaminants in lab exposures and as well after exposure to two municipal wastewater effluents (MWWE), with a major advantage over conventional techniques due to its ability to non-lethally sample tissues of living organisms.