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Acute Toxicity, Teratogenic, and Estrogenic Effects of Bisphenol A and Its Alternative Replacements Bisphenol S, Bisphenol F, and Bisphenol AF in Zebrafish Embryo-Larvae
- Moreman, John, Lee, Okhyun, Trznadel, Maciej, David, Arthur, Kudoh, Tetsuhiro, Tyler, Charles R.
- Environmental Science & Technology 2017 v.51 no.21 pp. 12796-12805
- Danio rerio, abnormal development, acute toxicity, adverse effects, bioaccumulation factor, bisphenol A, bisphenol F, bisphenol S, edema, environmental science, estrogen receptors, estrogenic properties, fins, fish, heart, humans, larvae, liver, muscles, plastics, resins, teratogenicity, tissues, transgenic animals, wildlife
- Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical incorporated into plastics and resins, has estrogenic activity and is associated with adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Similarly structured BPA analogues are widely used but far less is known about their potential toxicity or estrogenic activity in vivo. We undertook the first comprehensive analysis on the toxicity and teratogenic effects of the bisphenols BPA, BPS, BPF, and BPAF in zebrafish embryo-larvae and an assessment on their estrogenic mechanisms in an estrogen-responsive transgenic fish Tg(ERE:Gal4ff)(UAS:GFP). The rank order for toxicity was BPAF > BPA > BPF > BPS. Developmental deformities for larval exposures included cardiac edema, spinal malformation, and craniofacial deformities and there were distinct differences in the effects and potencies between the different bisphenol chemicals. These effects, however, occurred only at concentrations between 1.0 and 200 mg/L which exceed those in most environments. All bisphenol compounds induced estrogenic responses in Tg(ERE:Gal4ff)(UAS:GFP) zebrafish that were inhibited by coexposure with ICI 182 780, demonstrating an estrogen receptor dependent mechanism. Target tissues included the heart, liver, somite muscle, fins, and corpuscles of Stannius. The rank order for estrogenicity was BPAF > BPA = BPF > BPS. Bioconcentration factors were 4.5, 17.8, 5.3, and 0.067 for exposure concentrations of 1.0, 1.0, 0.10, and 50 mg/L for BPA, BPF, BPAF, and BPS, respectively. We thus show that these BPA alternatives induce similar toxic and estrogenic effects to BPA and that BPAF is more potent than BPA, further highlighting health concerns regarding the use of BPA alternatives.