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Quality Parameters and Rheological Dough Properties of 15 Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) Varieties Cultivated Today

Wiwart, Marian, Szafrańska, Anna, Wachowska, Urszula, Suchowilska, Elżbieta
Cereal chemistry 2017 v.94 no.6 pp. 1037-1044
Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta, absorption, amylases, breadmaking, breeding lines, dough, gluten, nutritive value, principal component analysis, retrogradation, rheological properties, seeds, spring, wheat, wheat flour, winter
Spelt grain has high nutritional value, but the rheological properties of dough made from spelt flour remain insufficiently investigated. Most studies have focused on comparing various breeding lines and accessions of spelt with selected conventional varieties. The aim of this study was to analyze the rheological properties of dough made from the flour of 14 winter and one spring spelt varieties cultivated today compared with two reference varieties of common wheat. The analyses were performed by the Mixolab test. In comparison with common wheat, spelt varieties were characterized by significantly lower values of the gluten index (16–42 versus 87%), Zeleny index (23–28 versus 46 cm³), and kernel vitreousness (5–35 versus 51%). Doughs produced from spelt and common wheat flour differed significantly it their rheological properties. Mixolab profiles demonstrated significant variations in the values of the retrogradation index (2–8), amylase index (1–8), water absorption index (0–6), and gluten+ index (1–7) across the tested spelt varieties. Principal component analysis revealed that all six Mixolab indicators strongly discriminated wheat and spelt varieties. The results clearly indicate that some modern varieties of spelt have high breadmaking potential. They are also characterized by relatively high variation in the analyzed technological properties of grain and flour.