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Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria

Miransari, Mohammad
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2011 v.89 no.4 pp. 917-930
culture media, ecosystems, edaphic factors, fungal spores, gene expression, mycorrhizal fungi, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, plants (botany), soil properties, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae
The soil environment is interesting and complicated. There are so many interactions taking place in the soil, which determine the properties of soil as a medium for the growth and activities of plants and soil microorganisms. The soil fungi, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), are in mutual and beneficial symbiosis with most of the terrestrial plants. AM fungi are continuously interactive with a wide range of soil microorganisms including nonbacterial soil microorganisms, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, mycorrhiza helper bacteria and deleterious bacteria. Their interactions can have important implications in agriculture. There are some interesting interactions between the AM fungi and soil bacteria including the binding of soil bacteria to the fungal spore, the injection of molecules by bacteria into the fungal spore, the production of volatiles by bacteria and the degradation of fungal cellular wall. Such mechanisms can affect the expression of genes in AM fungi and hence their performance and ecosystem productivity. Hence, consideration of such interactive behavior is of significance. In this review, some of the most important findings regarding the interactions between AM fungi and soil bacteria with some new insights for future research are presented.