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Applicability of an Integrated Testing Strategy consisting of in silico, in chemico and in vitro assays for evaluating the skin sensitization potencies of isocyanates
- Ohtake, Toshiyuki, Maeda, Yosuke, Hayashi, Tae, Yamanaka, Hidenori, Nakai, Makoto, Takeyoshi, Masahiro
- Toxicology 2017
- allergens, ethics, guinea pigs, human cell lines, in vitro studies, internal transcribed spacers, local lymph node assay, mice, nonanimal tests, prediction, safety assessment, solubility
- The skin sensitization potential of chemicals has been traditionally assessed using regulatory accepted in vivo methods, such as guinea pig or mouse local lymph node assays (LLNAs). A huge effort to refine and reduce the use of animals for safety assessments of chemicals because of regulatory requirements and ethical issues is presently underway, and alternative non-animal methods have been greatly developed. So far, a few studies have investigated the sensitization potencies of isocyanates which is a group of highly reactive chemicals that are known to be occupational allergens. The present study evaluated nine commonly used isocyanates using an in vivo LLNA and assessed the applicability of an Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS) consisting of an in silico Derek Nexus prediction, an in chemico direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), and an in vitro human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) to isocyanates. All nine isocyanates were evaluated as positive using the LLNA, Derek Nexus and DPRA, whereas seven chemicals tested positive using the h-CLAT: hexamethylene diisocyanate tested negative, and 1,5-diisocyanatonaphthalene could not be examined because of a solubility issue. When assessed using the ITS, the positive/negative evaluations of skin sensitization hazard were consistent with those assessed using the LLNA for all nine chemicals. However, the potency prediction results of the ITS tended to be underestimated, compared with those of the LLNA. The data presented in this work provide insights into the performance of non-animal testing approaches for evaluating the skin sensitization potencies of isocyanates.