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N-acetyl-L-cysteine and Mn2+ attenuate Cd2+-induced disturbance of the intracellular free calcium homeostasis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons

Isaev, Nickolay K., Avilkina, Svetlana, Golyshev, Sergey A., Genrikhs, Elisaveta E., Alexandrova, Olga P., Kapkaeva, Marina R., Stelmashook, Elena V.
Toxicology 2017
acetylcysteine, antioxidants, cadmium, cadmium chloride, calcium, cerebellum, death, direct contact, dose response, fluorescence, heavy metals, homeostasis, ions, manganese, mitochondria, mortality, neurodegenerative diseases, neurons, respiratory system, toxicity, vitamin E
Cadmium is a highly toxic heavy metal that is capable of accumulating in the body via direct exposure or through the alimentary and respiratory tract, leading to neurodegeneration. In this article, we show that the application of CdCl2 (0.001–0.005mM) for 48h induced high dose-dependent death rate of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Unlike Trolox or vitamin E, antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 1mM) and Mn2+ (0.0025–0.005mM) significantly protected CGNs from this toxic effect. Using Fluo-4 AM, measurements of intracellular calcium ions demonstrated that 24 h-exposure to Cd2+ induced intensive increase of Fluo-4 fluorescence in neurons accompanied by mitochondria swelling. These data imply that the cadmium-induced Ca2+ increase is an important element in the death of neurons due to toxic effect of cadmium and the mechanism of protective action of manganese and NAC is mediated by the prevention of increase in calcium levels.