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Comparative secretome analysis of Colletotrichum falcatum identifies a cerato-platanin protein (EPL1) as a potential pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) inducing systemic resistance in sugarcane

Ashwin, N.M.R., Barnabas, Leonard, Ramesh Sundar, Amalraj, Malathi, Palaniyandi, Viswanathan, Rasappa, Masi, Antonio, Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar, Rakwal, Randeep
Journal of proteomics 2017 v.169 pp. 2-20
Glomerella tucumanensis, elicitors, fungi, host-pathogen relationships, hypersensitive response, immunity, pathogen-associated molecular patterns, pathogens, proteins, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, sugarcane, tobacco, transcription (genetics), virulence
Colletotrichum falcatum, an intriguing hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen causes red rot, a devastating disease of sugarcane. Repeated in vitro subculturing of C. falcatum under dark condition alters morphology and reduces virulence of the culture. Hitherto, no information is available on this phenomenon at molecular level. In this study, the in vitro secretome of C. falcatum cultured under light and dark conditions was analyzed using 2-DE coupled with MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Comparative analysis identified nine differentially abundant proteins. Among them, seven proteins were less abundant in the dark-cultured C. falcatum, wherein only two protein species of a cerato-platanin protein called EPL1 (eliciting plant response-like protein) were found to be highly abundant. Transcriptional expression of candidate high abundant proteins was profiled during host-pathogen interaction using qRT-PCR. Comprehensively, this comparative secretome analysis identified five putative effectors, two pathogenicity-related proteins and one pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) of C. falcatum. Functional characterization of three distinct domains of the PAMP (EPL1) showed that the major cerato-platanin domain (EPL1∆N1–92) is exclusively essential for inducing defense and hypersensitive response (HR) in sugarcane and tobacco, respectively. Further, priming with EPL1∆N1–92 protein induced systemic resistance and significantly suppressed the red rot severity in sugarcane.Being the first secretomic investigation of C. falcatum, this study has identified five potential effectors, two pathogenicity-related proteins and a PAMP. Although many reports have highlighted the influence of light on pathogenicity, this study has established a direct link between light and expression of effectors, for the first time. This study has presented the influence of a novel N-terminal domain of EPL1 in physical and biological properties and established the functional role of major cerato-platanin domain of EPL1 as a potential elicitor inducing systemic resistance in sugarcane. Comprehensively, the study has identified proteins that putatively contribute to virulence of C. falcatum and for the first time, demonstrated the potential role of EPL1 in inducing PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in sugarcane.