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Celluclast 1.5L pretreatment enhanced aroma of palm kernels and oil after kernel roasting

Zhang, Wencan, Zhao, Fangju, Yang, Tiankui, Zhao, Feifei, Liu, Shaoquan
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2017 v.97 no.15 pp. 5146-5157
clearcutting, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, glucose, maltol, odors, palm kernel oil, palm kernels, principal component analysis, roasting, seeds, volatile compounds
BACKGROUND: The aroma of palm kernel oil (PKO) affects its applications. Little information is available on how enzymatic modification of palm kernels (PK) affects PK and PKO aroma after kernel roasting. RESULTS: Celluclast (cellulase) pretreatment of PK resulted in a 2.4‐fold increment in the concentration of soluble sugars, with glucose being increased by 6.0‐fold. Higher levels of 1.7‐, 1.8‐ and 1.9‐fold of O‐heterocyclic volatile compounds were found in the treated PK after roasting at 180 °C for 8, 14 and 20 min respectively relative to the corresponding control, with furfural, 5‐methyl‐2‐furancarboxaldehyde, 2‐furanmethanol and maltol in particularly higher amounts. Volatile differences between PKOs from control and treated PK were also found, though less obvious owing to the aqueous extraction process. Principal component analysis based on aroma‐active compounds revealed that upon the proceeding of roasting, the differentiation between control and treated PK was enlarged while that of corresponding PKOs was less clear‐cut. Celluclast pretreatment enabled the medium roasted PK to impart more nutty, roasty and caramelic odor and the corresponding PKO to impart more caramelic but less roasty and burnt notes. CONCLUSION: Celluclast pretreatment of PK followed by roasting may be a promising new way of improving PKO aroma. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry