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Effects of fish meal replacement with meat and bone meal using garlic (Allium sativum) powder on growth, feeding, digestive enzymes and apparent digestibility of nutrients and fatty acids in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792)

Esmaeili, M., Abedian Kenari, A., Rombenso, A. N.
Aquaculture nutrition 2017 v.23 no.6 pp. 1225-1234
Allium sativum, Oncorhynchus mykiss, body composition, diet, digestibility, digestive enzymes, energy, enzyme activity, fatty acid composition, fish, fish meal, garlic, juveniles, meat and bone meal, muscles, nutrients, polyunsaturated fatty acids
Effects of graded dietary levels of fish meal (FM) replacement with meat and bone meal (MBM) with garlic powder (G) or without garlic powder (WG) garlic powder were investigated on growth, digestive enzymes, apparent digestibility, body composition and fatty acid profile of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss; 8.26 ± 1.10 g). A total of eight dietary treatments were evaluated: control with garlic powder (0 MBM+G), 250 MBM+G, 450 MBM+G, and 650 MBM+G (g MBM/kg diet; treatments with garlic powder; G treatments), control without garlic powder (0 MBM), 250 MBM, 450 MBM and 650 MBM (g MBM/kg diet; treatments without garlic powder; WG treatments). Our results demonstrated that increased dietary content of MBM impaired growth and production performance, body composition, digestive enzyme activity, tissue fatty acid profile and overall digestibility. Addition of garlic powder was able to correct fish performance, body composition, enzyme activity and digestibility to some extent. Dietary supply of garlic resulted in increased digestive enzyme activity improving fish performance. The current results indicated that fish fed 650 g MBM/kg feed exhibited impaired growth that could be attributed to reduce digestibility of protein, fat, energy and dry matter, PUFAs and n‐3 LC‐PUFAs in muscle. We suggest that 450 g FM per kilo feed can be successfully replaced with MBM supplemented with 30 g garlic powder per kilo feed without impairing fish performance and physiology, however distorting tissue fatty acid composition resulting in lesser levels of n‐3 LC‐PUFAs compared to the 0 MBM+G diet.