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Individual and combined effects of Fusarium toxins on apoptosis in PK15 cells and the protective role of N-acetylcysteine

Zhang, Wei, Zhang, Shihua, Zhang, Meiling, Yang, Lige, Cheng, Baojing, Li, Jianping, Shan, Anshan
Food and chemical toxicology 2018 v.111 pp. 27-43
Fusarium, acetylcysteine, apoptosis, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, gene expression, glutathione-disulfide reductase, kidney cells, malondialdehyde, messenger RNA, nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress, protective effect, reactive oxygen species, stress response, superoxide dismutase, swine, toxicology, zearalenone
Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are among the most toxicologically important Fusarium toxins commonly found in nature that lead to nephrotoxicity in animals. The present study investigated that the individual and combined effects of subcytotoxic DON (0.25 μM), ZEN (20 μM) and FB1 (10 μM) on oxidative stress and apoptosis in porcine kidney cells (PK15). In addition, the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the toxicity of Fusarium toxins was also evaluated. Our results showed that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) were affected by DON, ZEN and FB1, and this change in activity induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production, increased apoptosis and regulated the mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c (cyto c) and P53. This study demonstrated the complexity of combined mycotoxin infection since the combination of toxins exhibited more profound defects in the oxidative stress responses and apoptosis. Moreover, NAC reduced the oxidative damage and inhibited the apoptosis induced by Fusarium toxins. It was concluded that oxidative damage and apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent channel were the mechanisms of Fusarium toxin mediated toxicity, and NAC reversed these damages to some extent.