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Activity-Based Probes for Isoenzyme- and Site-Specific Functional Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferases

Stoddard, Ethan G., Killinger, Bryan J., Nair, Reji N., Sadler, Natalie C., Volk, Regan F., Purvine, Samuel O., Shukla, Anil K., Smith, Jordan N., Wright, Aaron T.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2017 v.139 no.45 pp. 16032-16035
active sites, drugs, glutathione, glutathione transferase, liver, mammals, metabolism, models, moieties, tissues, xenobiotics
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) comprise a diverse family of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes whose shared function is the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to endo- and xenobiotics. Although the conglomerate activity of these enzymes can be measured, the isoform-specific contribution to the metabolism of xenobiotics in complex biological samples has not been possible. We have developed two activity-based probes (ABPs) that characterize active GSTs in mammalian tissues. The GST active site is composed of a GSH binding “G site” and a substrate binding “H site”. Therefore, we developed (1) a GSH-based photoaffinity probe (GSTABP-G) to target the “G site”, and (2) an ABP designed to mimic a substrate molecule and have “H site” activity (GSTABP-H). The GSTABP-G features a photoreactive moiety for UV-induced covalent binding to GSTs and GSH-binding enzymes. The GSTABP-H is a derivative of a known mechanism-based GST inhibitor that binds within the active site and inhibits GST activity. Validation of probe targets and “G” and “H” site specificity was carried out using a series of competition experiments in the liver. Herein, we present robust tools for the characterization of enzyme- and active site-specific GST activity in mammalian model systems.