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Crude oil at concentrations considered safe promotes rapid stress-response in Lake Baikal endemic amphipods

Ekaterina P. Shchapova, Denis V. Axenov-Gribanov, Yulia A. Lubyaga, Zhanna M. Shatilina, Kseniya P. Vereshchagina, Ekaterina V. Madyarova, Eugeniy S. Protasov, Maxim A. Timofeyev
Hydrobiologia 2018 v.805 no.1 pp. 189-201
Amphipoda, acute exposure, acute toxicity, aquaculture, aquatic environment, ecosystems, enzyme activity, fisheries, lipid peroxidation, littoral zone, monitoring, oils, petroleum, stress response, water reservoirs, water solubility, Lake Baikal, Russia
The current study evaluated the possible toxic effects of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on the general cellular stress-response mechanisms of two dominant representatives of Lake Baikal’s littoral community, the endemic amphipod species Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and E. cyaneus. The acute toxicity effects on the cellular stress-response mechanisms of amphipods were studied in the laboratory by exposing amphipods in water from Lake Baikal to addition of a water-soluble fraction of crude oil at concentrations considered safe for the aquatic environment. The present study found that even short-term exposure to a water-soluble fraction of crude oil at concentration of 50 µg/L, established as the threshold limit for fishery and aquaculture water reservoirs in the Russian Federation, directly affected the general stress-response markers HSP70 and lipid peroxidation and significantly changed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in both studied species. This result confirms the high sensitivity of Baikal endemics to crude oil. Thus, it also indicates that established standards and threshold limit values of oil concentrations estimated for ecological monitoring of general water reservoirs cannot be applied directly to the unique Lake Baikal ecosystem.