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Bovine whole-blood culture as a tool for the measurement of endotoxin activities in Gram-negative bacterial vaccines
- Imamura, Saiki, Nakamizo, Mari, Kawanishi, Michiko, Nakajima, Nao, Yamamoto, Kinya, Uchiyama, Mariko, Hirano, Fumiya, Nagai, Hidetaka, Kijima, Mayumi, Ikebuchi, Ryoyo, Mekata, Hirohisa, Murata, Shiro, Konnai, Satoru, Ohashi, Kazuhiko
- Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2013 v.153 no.1-2 pp. 153-158
- Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Limulus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, aluminum hydroxide, blood, cattle, gels, immune response, interleukins, messenger RNA, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, tumor necrosis factors, vaccines
- In order to analyze bovine immune reactions against the Gram-negative bacterial vaccine, bovine whole-blood culture was used to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokine responses stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We also examined the interaction between LPS and aluminum hydroxide gel for endotoxin activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses of whole bovine blood. Alteration in the mRNA concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 in whole-blood culture at 4h after stimulation with different doses of LPS was observed and determined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The mRNA concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β changed in a dose-dependent manner and differed depending on the type of LPS. Limulus test revealed that endotoxin activity was remarkably reduced when aluminum hydroxide gel was added to LPS. In contrast, the mRNA concentration of TNF-α in whole bovine blood was enhanced by LPS mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel. These results suggest that bovine whole-blood culture can be utilized to detect endotoxin activity of Gram-negative bacterial vaccines. In addition, whole-blood culture offers several advantages, such as ease of performance, few preparation artifacts, and a physiological cell environment, for investigating bovine immune response compared with the Limulus test.