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LOX-related collagen crosslink changes act as an initiator of bone fragility in a ZDF rats model

Xiao, Xun, Ren, Jie, Chen, Jun, Liu, Zhaohui, Tian, Ye, Nabar, Neel R., Wang, Min, Hao, Liang
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2018 v.495 no.1 pp. 821-827
animal disease models, collagen, correlation, diabetes, energy, enzymes, males, mechanical properties, mechanical testing, pathogenesis, rats
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) results in bone abnormalities that manifest as increased bone fragility. Bone consists of two phases, the mineral phase and the matrix phase, and disorders in both are seen in DM2. However, the phase in which DM2 mediated bone fragility is initiated is still unknown. In this study, a male Zucker diabetic fatty (fa/fa) (ZDF) rat model was used to investigate the underlying mechanism initiating DM2 mediated bone fragility. The fracture surface morphology, pre- and post-yield bone mechanical behavior, insoluble collagen volume, lysyl oxidase family (LOX) enzyme levels and correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between insoluble collagen and post-yield behavior. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, insoluble collagen was decreased in only the matrix phase in diabetic rats. Consistently, mechanical testing of the bone showed changes only in post-yield behavior. Diabetic rats also had decreased levels of enzymes involved in insoluble collagen formation (LOX and LOXL1 families). Correlation analysis demonstrated that insoluble collagen was a positive regressor of post-yield displacement (R = 0.894, P < 0.001) and post-yield energy (R = 0.918, P < 0.001). Together, these findings suggest that bone fragility in DM2 is initiated in the matrix phase and that the LOX family may play a critical part in the pathogenesis of DM2 mediated bone fragility.