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Arsenic forms and their combinations induce differences in phenolic accumulation in Ulmus laevis Pall

Drzewiecka, Kinga, Gąsecka, Monika, Rutkowski, Paweł, Magdziak, Zuzanna, Goliński, Piotr, Mleczek, Mirosław
Journal of plant physiology 2018 v.220 pp. 34-42
Ulmus, arsenic, gallic acid, leaves, lipid peroxidation, photosynthesis, quercetin, roots
Total phenolics and the profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids were investigated in the roots and leaves of Ulmus laevis cultured on the medium with inorganic and organic arsenic – As(III), As(V) and DMA(V) at 0.06mM and their equimolar combinations. Further, the accumulation of salicylic acid (free and glucoside-bound) and lipid oxidation were assayed following a three-month long experiment. As treatment caused elevated production of phenolics, which was higher in photosynthetic tissue than in roots for all As forms and their combinations, and their overall content was correlated with the accumulation of organic As in roots and As(III) in leaves. The accumulation of organic As strongly induced shikimate-derived protocatechiuc acid in roots. Contrary to this, shikimate-derived phenolics (protocatechuic, gallic acids and 4-HBA) were suppressed in leaves, while the accumulation of C6C3 acids (caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic) was stimulated by As(V) application. Surprisingly, these acids were not detected in the leaves of As(III)-treated plants, and mutually applied As(III) and DMA(V) reduced their content. DMA(V) negatively influenced the level of salicylic acid and its storage mechanism and this effect correlated with elevated MDA content in leaves. Quercetin accumulation was observed in both organs (mainly leaves) of DMA(V)-treated plants thereby proving its function in defensive response of Ulmus laevis to organic forms of As.