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Chemical composition and antibacterial, antifungal, allelopathic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of cassumunar‐ginger

Verma, Ram S, Joshi, Neeta, Padalia, Rajendra C, Singh, Ved R, Goswami, Prakash, Verma, Sajendra K, Iqbal, Hina, Chanda, Debabrata, Verma, Rajesh K, Darokar, Mahendra P, Chauhan, Amit, Kandwal, Manish K
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2018 v.98 no.1 pp. 321-327
Zingiber montanum, acetylcholinesterase, antibacterial properties, antifungal properties, asthma, bacteria, beta-phellandrene, chemical composition, drugs, essential oils, fungi, gamma-terpinene, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, germination, hydrodistillation, ionization, lethal dose 50, lettuce, medicinal properties, minimum inhibitory concentration, oils, rhizomes, roots, sabinene, shoots, traditional medicine, India
BACKGROUND: Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as cassumunar‐ginger, is a folk remedy for the treatment of inflammations, sprains, rheumatism and asthma. The aim of the present study was to assess the chemical composition, and antibacterial, antifungal, allelopathic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the essential oil of Z. montanum originating from India. RESULTS: The hydrodistilled essential oil of Z. montanum rhizome was analyzed using gas chromatography‐flame ionization detection and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. A total of 49 constituents, forming 98.7–99.9% of the total oil compositions, was identified. The essential oil was characterized by higher amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons (32.6–43.5%), phenylbutanoids (27.5–41.2%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (11.4–34.1%). Major constituents of the oil were sabinene (13.5–38.0%), (E)‐1‐(3',4'‐dimethoxyphenyl)buta‐1,3‐diene (DMPBD) (20.6–35.3%), terpinen‐4‐ol (9.0–31.3%), γ‐terpinene (1.1–4.8%) and β‐phellandrene (1.0–4.4%). The oil was evaluated against eight pathogenic bacteria and two fungal strains. It exhibited low to good antibacterial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration: 125–500 µg mL–¹) and moderate antifungal activity (250 µg mL–¹) against the tested strains. The oil reduced germination (69.8%) and inhibited the root and shoot growth of lettuce significantly (LD₅₀: 3.58 µL plate–¹). However, it did not demonstrate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity up to a concentration of 10 mg mL–¹. CONCLUSIONS: The essential oil of Z. montanum can be used as a potential source of DMPBD, terpinen‐4‐ol and sabinene for pharmaceutical products. The results of the present study add significant information to the pharmacological activity of Z. montanum native to India. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry