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Virulence determines beneficial trade‐offs in the response of virus‐infected plants to drought via induction of salicylic acid
- Aguilar, Emmanuel, Cutrona, Carmen, del Toro, Francisco J., Vallarino, José G., Osorio, Sonia, Pérez‐Bueno, María Luisa, Barón, Matilde, Chung, Bong‐Nam, Canto, Tomás, Tenllado, Francisco
- Plant, cell and environment 2017 v.40 no.12 pp. 2909-2930
- Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Plum pox virus, Potato virus X, correlation, drought, drought tolerance, metabolites, phenotype, plant diseases and disorders, plant viruses, progeny, salicylic acid, synergism, transpiration, virulence, viruses
- It has been hypothesized that plants can get beneficial trade‐offs from viral infections when grown under drought conditions. However, experimental support for a positive correlation between virus‐induced drought tolerance and increased host fitness is scarce. We investigated whether increased virulence exhibited by the synergistic interaction involving Potato virus X (PVX) and Plum pox virus (PPV) improves tolerance to drought and host fitness in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Infection by the pair PPV/PVX and by PPV expressing the virulence protein P25 of PVX conferred an enhanced drought‐tolerant phenotype compared with single infections with either PPV or PVX. Decreased transpiration rates in virus‐infected plants were correlated with drought tolerance in N. benthamiana but not in Arabidopsis. Metabolite and hormonal profiles of Arabidopsis plants infected with the different viruses showed a range of changes that positively correlated with a greater impact on drought tolerance. Virus infection enhanced drought tolerance in both species by increasing salicylic acid accumulation in an abscisic acid‐independent manner. Viable offspring derived from Arabidopsis plants infected with PPV increased relative to non‐infected plants, when exposed to drought. By contrast, the detrimental effect caused by the more virulent viruses overcame potential benefits associated with increased drought tolerance on host fitness.