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Authentication of Zanthoxylum Species Based on Integrated Analysis of Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences and Metabolite Profiles

Lee, Hyeon Ju, Koo, Hyun Jo, Lee, Jonghoon, Lee, Sang-Choon, Lee, Dong Young, Giang, Vo Ngoc Linh, Kim, Minjung, Shim, Hyeonah, Park, Jee Young, Yoo, Ki-Oug, Sung, Sang Hyun, Yang, Tae-Jin
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.47 pp. 10350-10359
Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, chloroplast genome, crops, genetic markers, genomics, markets, metabolites, pepper, single nucleotide polymorphism, small fruits, tandem repeat sequences, trees, Asia
We performed chloroplast genome sequencing and comparative analysis of two Rutaceae species, Zanthoxylum schinifolium (Korean pepper tree) and Z. piperitum (Japanese pepper tree), which are medicinal and culinary crops in Asia. We identified more than 837 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 103 insertions/deletions (InDels) based on a comparison of the two chloroplast genomes and developed seven DNA markers derived from five tandem repeats and two InDel variations that discriminated between Korean Zanthoxylum species. Metabolite profile analysis pointed to three metabolic groups, one with Korean Z. piperitum samples, one with Korean Z. schinifolium samples, and the last containing all the tested Chinese Zanthoxylum species samples, which are considered to be Z. bungeanum based on our results. Two markers were capable of distinguishing among these three groups. The chloroplast genome sequences identified in this study represent a valuable genomics resource for exploring diversity in Rutaceae, and the molecular markers will be useful for authenticating dried Zanthoxylum berries in the marketplace.