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Genetic and morphological diversity in Geranium dissectum (Sec. Dissecta, Geraniaceae) populations

Esfandani Bozchaloyi, Somayeh, Sheidai, Masoud, Keshavarzi, Maryam, Noormohammadi, Zahra
Biológia 2017 v.72 no.10 pp. 1121-1130
Geranium, analysis of variance, biodiversity, corolla, ecotypes, gene flow, genetic variation, leaves, microsatellite repeats, morphometry, population structure, quantitative traits, traditional medicine, weeds, Eurasia, Iran
Geranium, section Dissecta, (Geraniaceae) consists of four species in the world. It is believed that the center of diversification of this section is Eurasia. G. dissectum is the only species of this section in northern parts of Iran. A multivariate morphometric study showed that some quantitative characters such as deeply divided leaves, shorter and narrower petals, and shorter filaments are main diagnostic features of G. dissectum. This tannin-rich plant has many uses in folk medicine. There is no information on its population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and morphological variability in Iran. Due to the medicinal and weed importance of this species, a genetic variability and populations’ structure study is performed studying 21 geographical populations of G. dissectum. Perhaps the most important biological challenge today is the conservation of biodiversity. Populations were studied from morphological and genetic (ISSR) points of views. Both intra and inter-population morphological and genetic variability was observed in the studied accessions. ANOVA and CVA tests revealed significant morphological difference among populations. Similarly, AMOVA and Hickory tests revealed significant molecular difference among geographical populations. Mantel test produced significant positive correlation between genetic and geographical distance of the studied populations. Networking, STRUCTURE analyses and population assignment test revealed some degree of gene flow among these populations. Consensus tree based on morphological and genetic data separated some of these populations from the others suggesting the existence of ecotypes within this species.